Joachim Breitner

Faster Winter 6: Simpler Code

Published 2019-11-24 in sections English, Haskell.

(This is the sixth optimization presented in the “faster winter” series, please see that post for background information.)

The Wasm reference interpreter has a function step that performs one single one step of evaluation, by taking the state before (in a type called code), and returning the state after the step. The function eval calls step, checks if the result is “done” (no instructions left to do), and if it is not done, recursively calls eval again. This way, evaluation progresses step by step until it is done.

The Haskell port follows the same pattern of a single-step step and a driver eval, but it chose to write the code continuation passing style: Instead of returning, the function step takes a function that it passes the result to. So the code looks like this (slightly simplified):


Again, avoiding function values (as we construct them as the contination closure) might have helped here.

Or maybe the simpler code allowed GHC to notice that the Code value, which is simply a tuple with a different name, is constructed by step but immediatelly deconstructed by eval, and thus GHC could optimize that away (by “unboxing” the argument and/or result of step and simply passing the components of the tuple).

And finally, independent of all the performance questions, it also makes the code easier to understand.


Have something to say? You can post a comment by sending an e-Mail to me at <>, and I will include it here.