Joachim Breitner

ghc-proofs rules more now

Published 2017-04-27 in sections English, Haskell.

A few weeks ago I blogged about an experiment of mine, where I proved equalities of Haskell programs by (ab)using the GHC simplifier. For more details, please see that post, or the video of my talk at the Zürich Haskell User Group, but one reason why this approach has any chance of being useful is the compiler’s support for rewrite rules.

Rewrite rules are program equations that the programmer specifies in the source file, and which the compiler then applies, from left to right, whenever some intermediate code matches the left-hand side of the equation. One such rule, for example, is

{-# RULES "foldr/nil" forall k z. foldr k z [] = z #-}

taken right out of the standard library.

In my blog post I went through the algebraic laws that a small library of mine, successors, should fulfill, and sure enough, once I got to more interesting proofs, they would not go through just like that. At that point I had to add additional rules to the file I was editing, which helped the compiler to finish the proofs. Some of these rules were simple like

{-# RULES "mapFB/id" forall c. mapFB c (\x -> x) = c #-}
{-# RULES "foldr/nil" forall k n. GHC.Base.foldr k n [] = n #-}
{-# RULES "foldr/undo" forall xs. GHC.Base.foldr (:) [] xs = xs #-}

and some are more intricate like

{-# RULES "foldr/mapFB" forall c f g n1 n2 xs.
    GHC.Base.foldr (mapFB c f) n1 (GHC.Base.foldr (mapFB (:) g) n2 xs)
    = GHC.Base.foldr (mapFB c (f.g)) (GHC.Base.foldr (mapFB c f) n1 n2) xs
    #-}

But there is something fishy going on here: The foldr/nil rule is identical to a rule in the standard library! I should not have to add to my file that as I am proving things. So I knew that the GHC plugin, which I wrote to do these proofs, was doing something wrong, but I did not investigate for a while.

I returned to this problem recetly, and with the efficient and quick help of Simon Peyton Jones, I learned what I was doing wrong.1 After fixing it, I could remove all the simple rules from the files with my proofs. And to my surprise, I could remove the intricate rule as well!

So with this bug fixed, ghc-proofs is able to prove all the Functor, Applicative and Monad rules of the Succs functor without any additional rewrite rules, as you can see in the example file! (I still have to strategically place seqs in a few places.)

That’s great, isn’t it! Yeah, sure. But having to introduce the rules at that point provided a very good narrative in my talk, so when I will give a similar talk next week in Pairs (actually, twice, first at the university and then at the Paris Haskell meetup, I will have to come up with a different example that calls for additional rewrite rules.

In related news: Since the last blog post, ghc-proofs learned to interpret proof specifications like

applicative_law4 :: Succs (a -> b) -> a -> Proof
applicative_law4 u y = u <*> pure y
                   === pure ($ y) <*> u

where it previously only understood

applicative_law4 = (\ u (y::a) -> u <*> (pure y :: Succs a))
               === (\ u (y::a) -> pure ($ y) <*> u)

I am not sur if this should be uploaded to Hackage, but I invite you to play around with the GitHub version of ghc-proofs.


  1. In short: I did not initialize the simplifier with the right InScopeSet, so RULES about functions defined in the current module were not always applied, and I did not feed the eps_rules to the simplifier, which contains all the rules found in imported packages, such as base.

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